The ParVivo kidney model is a perfused human proximal tubule. The model demonstrates CD13, ZO-1, and Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase expression as shown through immuno-florescent staining. The proximal tubule model is viable for 2-3 weeks depending on cell source. Readout methodologies include: KIM-1 and HO-1 in Effluent, Live/Dead Staining, Tube Permeability, and Genomic Analysis.
The ParVivo liver models include both a hepatocyte monoculture and a co-culture with human hepatocyte, human endothelial (EA.hy926), immune (U937) and stellate (LX-2) cells in physiological ratios and are viable for up to 28 days under continuous flow. The co-culture liver model demonstrates stable metabolic function, including phase 1 and phase 2 drug metabolism for 10–23 days, polarized bile efflux, protein secretion, and responds predictably to known hepatotoxic compounds. It is also possible to link the kidney and liver models for organ-organ interaction studies.
The ParVivo vascular model uses a HUVEC tube that expresses CD31 and ZO-1 tight junction markers. The vascular tube can be used for vascular injury or permeability modulation studies.
Blood Brain Barrier
The ParVivo blood brain barrier model is a tri-culture of endothelial cells, pericytes, and astrocytes. The BBB model shows tight junction markers, PGP polarization, and in-vivo like permeability. The primary readout for the BBB model is a fluorescent permeability analysis; further readouts are under development.
The ParVivo system can be used to create a variety of tumor microenvironments both with and without vasculature. Primary readouts include live/dead staining, vascular permeability, and angiogenesis.